Medycyna Nowożytna 2016, fasc. 1.
13 września 2016
How elderly lady gives advices- health and beauty on the example of ‘Novel about the Rose’
‘Novel about the Rose’ is a French poem, which first part was written by Wilhelm de Lloris in year 1230, second part goes to Jean de Meum in 1280 year. This piece is a seen, which tells us about travelling of the main hero through the love garden, which is inhabited by personifications. The main heroin of few chapters, who is also the teller, is this elderly lady, who show us her ideas about the nature and freedom. She gives some advices, how to be pleasant and she teaches women how to take care about their health, especially their beauty. Jan from Meum, the author of second part of this piece reveal us his image about relations between men and women. He teaches, how to treat or hide some illnesses. Itch is the main disease, he writes mostly. Jan from Meum gives a purpose in smilling and crying, what is more he encourages women to every cosmetic movements, make up for example. He knows the canons so he distinguishes beautiful and ugly women. Moreover he is conscious of the fashion from the thirteen century. Hair is for him one of the most important criterion. Furthermore he recommends fun and dance. Ideas connected with this novel which are totally different from church’s point of view, makes this book loved and hated in the same time. Thanks to that masterpiece we are aware of daily life of main characters and their visions and decisions of highly educated people from France in thirteen century.
Chronic diseases and their prevention in confessional teaching of Seventh-Day Adventists in the United States
Seventh-Day Adventists are one of religious groups (movements) who the health and disease issues have built into the cognitive structure of their own confession bringing a strong soteriological dimension to them. Adventist religious doctrine can be defined as adventist lifestyle. The main recommendation of this health theology is categorical imperative of healthful living regarded as a moral obligation of all Adventists. Studies show that those Adventists who follow the religious health instructions are less likely affected by chronic diseases. Their life expectancy increases by a few years in relation to their peers who do not obey the Church recommendations. As far as terminal illnesses are concerned, Adventists believe that a Christian should not cling to his life when faced with an incurable disease or bothersome suffering, but choose “God’s promise of eternal life”. It does not mean that Adventists are not supporters of life extending medical remedies or treatments. On the contrary; they only strongly oppose to active euthanasia, so called “mercy killing” or assisted suicide.
About the origin of the state social and health care – military hospital management in the modern age
In this article I present the policy of European countries on health and social care directed to soldiers and veterans. I am focusing on general comments and observations on macro scale, excluding detailed research suitable for microhistory. I am interested in reasons and consequences of European military hospital management’s development in the modern age.
In my research I distinguish three categories of military hospitals: permanent, temporal and field hospitals. Temporal and field hospitals treated mostly sick and wounded soldiers, while pernament hospitals took care over disabled war veterans. I would like to point out that only development and cooperation of all these health care units could provide the highest standard of care (an example of which can be France from the end of XVIIth century)
In my opinion in the age of feudal society (pre-industrial), the fundamental role of providing social services was the family and society. If someone did not receive support from the family and friends, he was forced to go for help to religious organizations or charities funded by social elites. In this system, the role of the state or monarch was marginal and confined to submission by monarchs or parliamets money for charity. This seemingly stable system was disrupted as a result of military revolution. Development of new techniques of war, and consequently the arm race, which apogee we can observe in XVIIth century (the age of wars), forced the countries to take care of wounded, sick and, above all, old soldiers.
Obviously these monarchs’ actions were not caused by humanitarian factors, but utylitarianism. Rather than take out new soldiers, which had to undergo training, it was more financialy profitable to treat experienced ones. Also pernament hospitals for veterans were extremely useful. These institutions prevented vagabondage and growth of crime. It also raised morale in army and instill belief that monarch (state) is committed to improve living conditions of soldiers. Effects of state health and social care were incredibly positive, which made many countries in the Age of Enlightenment to expand state care also to other social groups.
Krystyna W. Korpalska, Marek Maciejewski
Public Health on the Polish Territories under Prussian Rule illustrated by the case of Bydgoszcz District
As a result of the Second Partition of Poland the District of Bydgoszcz was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. As a consequence, on that area the modern concept of public health was introduced, similarly to the rest of the 19th-century Germany. Prussian doctors-officers were responsible for the development of the sanitary policy and guarded the norms ensuring preservation of health. At the beginning of the 19th century activeness of the Prussian state with reference to medical care, determined mostly by military and security considerations, was of short term or temporary character and focused mainly on anti-epidemic measures. It was no earlier than the second half of the 19th century that the concept of subjective right for health protection was created, mainly related to the health protection of working persons. The German insurance order was binding also on the Polish Territories annexed by the Prussia. On the basis of acts on insurance in the Bydgoszcz District the municipal and regional health maintenance organizations were established, owing to which the medical services and financial aid were available also to the Polish working class. The development of social insurance contributed to extension and modernization of hospitals and enabled the regulation of pharmacy-related matters, and of dental and midwifery care in the Bydgoszcz District.
Research on the Calabar bean (Physostigma venenosum Balf.) in 19th century medical and pharmaceutical journals
The Calabar bean (Physostigma venenosum Balf.) is both a poisonous and medicinal plant. Its toxic properties were investigated by William Freeman Daniell (1817-1865), a British surgeon and botanist. He reported that a water extract, milky in colour obtained from the seeds of a certain plant was used in the ‘judgements of god’ as the poison of test in Old Calabar. This drew the attention of Robert Christison (1797-1882), a Scottish physician, toxicologist and professor of materia medica in Edinburgh, who conducted experiments using the Calabar bean extract on animals as well as on himself. There were also publications on the Calabar bean in Polish journals authored, among others, by Maryan Barcz, the prowizor of pharmacy [professional degree obtained by pharmacy staff after graduation from university and professional practice].
Gastrology in the textbooks Walery Jaworowski and Paul Cohnheim in the yers 1882-1909-comparative analisys
Gastrology is one of the most evolving branch of medicine. Its development was started by Adolf Kusmaul’s invention (in 1871). Among polish and worldwide pioneers of gastrology was prof. Walery Jaworski, who is known as the author of the first polish textbook on diseases of the digestive system.
The aim of the article is to present diagnostic method and to compare the knowledge in the field of gastrology in Poland and Europe, based on a comparison of the information contained in Jaworski’s books (Short for pathology and treatment of diseases of the stomach and Handbook of diseases of the stomach) with the information contained in the textbook by Paul Cohnheim (Diseases of digestive canal oesophagus, stomach, intestines).
Moreover aim of this article is to remind Profesor Jaworski’s merits to polish gastrology and his contributions to the development of this branch of medicine in Europe.