Medycyna Nowożytna 2018, fasc. 1
26 września 2018
Bożena Płonka-Syroka, John Brown’s doctrine (1736-1788), its origin and reception in European medicine in the context of clinical standard formation. Part one.
The John Brown’s doctrine is not considered as important theoretical and practical concept in Polish historiography of medicine. It was not wildly accepted in Polish clinical medicine at the end of 18th century and during first three decades of 19th century, when it was at the height of popularity in Europe. It was also criticized in Polish handbooks for the history of medicine (Oettinger, Szumowski, Zembrzuski, Seyda, Brzeziński) as well as in translated ones (Petersen, Haeser). Majority of young historians of medicine use English literature where the so called ‘brownism’ is usually not mentioned at all or there is merely one phrase that it was an over-interpretation of William Cullen concepts who was one of the founders of English medicine. This paper which is composed of two parts shows real influence of ‘brownism’ on European medicine at the end of 18th century and at the first decades of 19th century. This doctrine actually met wide reception at many German universities, both in its original form and in the more indirect way, becoming the base for original local medical doctrines. In the first part, I will show the place of ‘brownism’ among other clinical doctrines of its times created as an answer for problematic situation in medical science at the end of 18th century. In the second part, I will analyze the reception od ‘brownism’ in European medicine showing the factors conducive spreading its ideas in some European countries and the others, stopping its reception in the other countries. The paper was based on my source studies on Brown’s doctrine reception in European medicine. It also contains references to literature which is not wildly known for Polish scholars but it shows the debates over medicine modernization process which was present among German historians.
Maria Joanna Turos, Neurological disorders of the aphasia typein observations of Dominik Jean Larrey
This is the presentation of the first observations regarding the combination of skull injuries and their consequences in the intellectual-cognitive sphere that the outstanding French surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey made in the first thirty years of the XIX century.
Joanna Lusek, Horst Doležal, Jewish students from Silesia studying at the medical faculty of Vienna University in the years 1850-1938 according to the records regarding university promotion and requirements
In the second half of 19th century a large number of people studying at the medical faculty of Vienna University were Jewish, including Jews from Silesia. In the years 1850–1938 medicine at the University of Vienna was studied by 202 people of Jewish origin from Silesia. They came mainly from the territory of Austrian Silesia, less often from Prussian Silesia. In 1938, after the seizure of Austria, the university became an arena of racist and political persecution, which resulted in irreversible losses of the medical faculty’s intellectual potential – both lecturers and students. Approximately one third of Jewish students were forced to stop their studies.
The topic raised in this study is a reference to the seldom discussed issues regarding medical education of Jews on the territory of Silesian borderland in the context of supracultural assimilation, i.e. coexistence of Jews in the academic circles of Vienna as well as the development of professional careers of Jewish people in the German speaking area. This work has been based on archival materials: promotion records prepared for the needs of the rector’s office of Vienna University and requirements records kept for the needs of the medical faculty for the years 1818–1938, which are available at the Archives of Vienna University. They allow establishing the exact number of Jewish students from Silesia who were studying at the medical faculty in the years 1850–1938. Apart from personal data, which include the dates of obligatory and promotion examinations, the archival materials allow analysing such details as the place and date of birth, the place of taking secondary school final examinations, father’s property or job.
Bożena Urbanek, Academic careers of women at the Faculty of Medicine of the Stefan Batory Vilnius University in the interwar period (1919 – 1939)
There was a characteristic elevation in the position of women on the territory of Poland after the first World War – not only when it came to acquiring voting rights but also regarding the carrying out of female aspirations related to obtaining professional certifications and necessary qualifications. That period of time is even sometimes shortly referred to as a ‘female knowledge rush’ where women were taking care of the development of their academic careers.
I want to illustrate this issue using the example provided by the medical faculty of the Vilnius University, one of the several faculties that operated at that university from 1919 to 1939. It is worth emphasizing that the aforementioned faculty foresaw – even as late as the end of the 19th century – a number of restrictions related to women. A woman attending the Medical Faculty was, at the very least, seen as behaving somewhat inappropriate.
Łukasz Mencner, The history of the medical print media in Great Britain in XIX century
The text presents the rapid development of medical periodicals in Great Britain in XIX century as well as their prominent founders. The new phenomenon of medical periodicals started simultaneously with the development of medicine and was especially visible in Great Britain where it clearly distinguished itself by the number and frequency of journals when compared to other European countries at that time.
Katarzyna Okoniewska, Dental practice in the Stutthof concentration camp
The aim of the article is to present the functioning of the dental offices in the concentration camps KL Stutthof in Sztutowo and KL Auschwitz in Oświęcim. The state of knowledge about dentistry at Stutthof camp is inadequate, because it has not been properly elaborated.
In the concentration camps, both the doctor and the dentist, were almost not associated with medical help. A dental office was established in KL Stutthof in November 1941 when Ernst Wedl arrived. The main tasks of the dentist was to take care of the SS staff and prisoners, but only the camp’s crew was surrounded with full medical care. The article presents a short analysis of sources, confirming that the SS-personnel were treated even when the case of tooth diseases was very serious, but when it comes to the prisoners, they could have tooth removal or sometimes jaw surgery. The most important task was to keep the records of prisoners with artificial teeth made of gold and other precious metals. After prisoners death, the doctor removed his teeth out and then melted down so that it could finally be sent to Goldverwaltung.