Medycyna Nowożytna 2015, fasc. 2.
13 stycznia 2016
Defining the Scope of Professional Practice of Sugeons and Barber-Surgeons in Early Modern Thorn (in the 18th century). The case of Johann Zander
In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth barber-surgeons and surgeons were usually engaged in quarreling against each other about the scope of their professional practice. Thus up to the end of the 18th century a fight and a hard competition between the craftsmen was a common feature of medical landsape in most Polish-Lithuanian cities, e.g. Poznan, Danzig, Lviv, and Vilna.
The papers presents the details of the ongoing dispute (1705–1708) between Johann Zander, a barber-surgeon born in Stralsund, and local medical authorities in Thorn (Royal Prussia), both the city physician and the surgeon guild’s masters. Johann Zander was a graduate of the Medical Faculty of the University of Koenigsberg, and thus a member of the barber-surgeons’ guild in Koenigsberg. When he inherited the Buergerrecht (citizenship) in Thorn as a Bader (barber) he was forbidden to perform surgery. Nevertheless he continued to provide surgical care for the city dwellers and strived for the right to become an authorized Buerger, Bader und Chirurgus.
Childbirth in ancient Rome in the light of medical and iconographic sources
Delivering a child is one of those rare experiences which seem to be universal for every woman, regardless of a place, time and culture. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the moment when a new human comes to the world, regardless of the progress of medical science, is still called a “miracle” and continues to fascinate not only biologists and doctors but also historians, anthropologists and ethnographers, to mention a few. Time of birth was considered, not only in ancient times, as a part of “women’s space” and this feminine area was a place for a biological act of giving birth which I wish to explore in the context of archeological/iconographical and literary/medical sources
Images of death according to early modern ars bene moriendi and Elizabeth Kubler –Ross „On death and dying”
Death and dying in the XVIth and XVIIth century Poland and XXth century America seems to have nothing in common. Amazigly it is not exactly the case. We have examined the main features of Kubler-Ross descriptions of death and dying from her 1969 best selling book „On death and dying” and compared them to two most popular artis bene moriendi treaties from XVIIth century Poland. The latter – being very popular throughout two centuries must have influenced the society’s views on the last stages of man’s life. It is shown in the study that Dr.Ross’s attitude towards disease and death, rules of communication with patient as well as famous staging of emotional reactions of patient approaching death may be traced in early modern books of ars bene moriendi written by theologians and jesuit priests. After decades of death being tabooed in the XIXth and XXth centuries, a new discourse on death gradually restarted in the fifties and Kubler – Ross’s voice in this discourse was well heard, also in Poland where first translation of her book was edited in 1979. The universality of the descriptions as well as the same christian root of the two are the key reasons of numerous similarities found.
Maria Joanna Turos
Jean Dominique Larrey, the battle of Waterloo, the history of the nineteenth century
The present text applies to virtually an unknown or incorrectly presented and interpreted by historians episode from the life of Jean Dominique Larrey, who in the final hours of the battle of Waterloo literally by accident escaped execution by Prussian soldiers.
“For spirits and horses greasing soap – paid for” – some comments about animals health care based on the bookkeeping of the Warsaw Black Friars Convent at the Modern Period
The purpose of the study is to present techniques used by members of the Dominican Order to solve the veterinary problems of the animals that belonged to the brothers and that which were kept in the manors such as: horses, cows, pigs, sheep and dogs. On the basis of the accounts written in XVII, XVIII and XIX century those practices were shown. There were usually two models of behavior in the attempts at medical treatment in early modern period. One of those was bleeding which was quite frequently used in that period of time. Phlebotomy was extremely popular, and used in various cases even to solve problems with sight or when horses were too exhausted to work. Next attention has been given particularly to special diet and drugs which were produced by the veterinarians. Some of the drugs produced in that period based on alcohol especially on vodka.
Valuable source for History of Ukrainian Medicine and Health care of the Soviet period
Article is dedicated to a general characteristic of the activity and historical path of the magazine “Preventive medicine” (“Prophylaktychna medycyna”, published in 1922-1937) as a body of scientific thought and mouthpiece of the Soviet regime in the field of medical prevention. Also the article considers approaches to a primary sources study analysis of materials which are contained in that magazine. The authors proves the value of that magazine as a historical source on the history of the Soviet Ukrainian medicine and healthcare. With this aim the authors investigates historical preconditions of the foundation of the magazine, identifies a personality of its founder, aim and tasks of the magazine; defines who was its and publisher, a number of the magazine’s issues, time and periodicity of their edition, language of the publications, supplements to the magazine; explores the editorial board; highlights the magazine’s structure and genres of its publications; makes a short and selective content-analysis of issues.