Vol. LIII (2016)
28 marca 2017
Katarzyna Buczek, The Hygiene Lectures of Karol Kaczkowski in the Volyn High School
Summary: The article discusses the lectures on hygiene Karol Kaczkowski gave in the Volyn High School (Liceum Wołyńskie) in Krzemieniec. Kaczkowski graduated from Vilnius University where he studied under Józef Frank and Jędrzej Śniadecki. One of his main interests lied in the dissemination of medical knowledge. As a physician working in Krzemieniec, he began delivering lectures on hygiene and health to students and residents of the city and its vicinity. He continued to give them systematically until 1823/1824.
Małgorzata Durbas, King Stanislas Leszczynski’s Cadet School in Lunéville as Seen Through School Regulations
Summary: The article presents the internal regulations on the organization of the Cadet School in Lunéville, which was founded by Stanislas Leszczynski, King of Poland and Duke of Lorraine. The author discusses the regulations concerning admissions, school discipline, the military and teaching staff and the curriculum. The basis for the analysis is a document titled Ordonnance du Roy pour la Compagnie des Cadet-Gentils-Hommes et Reglement which is included in Recueil des Ordonnances et réglemenst de Lorraine du règne de Sa Majesté le Roy de Pologne, duc de Lorraine et de Bar, as well as school regulations put in print in January 1740, edited in part by Franciszek Maksymilian Ossoliński, Leszczynski’s Lord Chamberlain of the Household in Lunéville.
Piotr Gołdyn, An Excerpt from the History of the Public Vocational School in Łuck in the Light of the Extant Correspondence
Summary: Among numerous files kept in the Register Office in Łuck in Volhynia there are ones of the Public Vocational School in Łuck. The documents that deserve special attention are those containing correspondence of the school authorities with other institutions and organizations. On their basis it is possible to recreate the history of the Public Vocational School in Łuck. It was established in 1925 by the Polish Educational Society. Starting from 1934 it was governed by the authorities of Łuck. It was overseen by a board of trustees of the Łuck school district. Its students, who were mostly Jewish, learnt technology and manufacturing. The classes took place four times a week in the evenings. The curriculum included not only general vocational education but also training for specific professions such as tailoring, dealership, construction, wood processing, metal industry and butchery. Young girls also could attend the school, which was closed in 1939.
Monika Nawrot-Borowska, “No One Can Tear Polishness Out of Our Hearts” – From the Memoirs of Leokadia Boniewicz on Education in Chełmno Land in the Period of School Strikes
Summary: At the beginning of the 20th century, the anti-Polish policy in Prussia was tightened, which led to protests in the Polish society, especially among Polish youth. As a result of removing the Polish language from schools, resistance action was taken by the pupils. In 1901–1904 and 1906–1907, school strikes were called throughout the Prussian partition. Such manifestations of the defenders of Polishness were described in the memoirs of Leokadia Boniewicz on the example of the province of West Prussia, specifically Chełmno Land. Her siblings and peers actively participated in school strikes. Her family showed a keen interest in the Polish matters and undertook a variety of activities to pass national consciousness on to later generations. The paper aims to present the specificity of education in her family in relation to the cultural and educational situation of Poles under the Prussian rule. Particular emphasis is given to patriotic education, i.e. developing national consciousness in the young generation. This practice was characteristic not only for Boniewicz’s family members, but also for the entire Polish community of Chełmno Land.
Maria Radziszewska, The Fates of the 1905 School Strikers as Exemplified by the Biography of Tadeusz Młodkowski
Summary: The article presents the biography of Tadeusz Młodkowski (b. 1887 in Warsaw – d. 1960 in Mrągowo), one of the school strikers of 1905. Młodkowski was an active participant in the boycott of the Russian school, since as a result he was expelled from the eighth grade of the 2nd Male High School (Gymnasium) in Warsaw. As a blacklisted individual, he missed the chance to finish high school in Warsaw. He emigrated to Kraków where he attended the Faculty of Philosophy of the Jagiellonian University as an unenrolled student. In 1907 he returned to Warsaw and took up work as a teacher. His later life shows that he found fulfilment in this profession regardless of the type of school and place he worked in. He was also respected for his other achievements as a soldier, scout and archivist. He received numerous awards and commendations for his life’s work.
Magdalena Rzepka, The Current State of Research and Prospects for Further Research on Aviation Education in the Second Polish Republic
Summary: The aim of this article is to present the current state of and prospects for research on aviation education in the Second Polish Republic. It contains the review of literature relating to the history of aviation in that period including the works on main aviation areas: engine aircrafts, gliding, ballooning, parachuting and aircraft model-making as well as on social organisations active in the field of aviation and on aerial training. It also reviews the literature on the aviation education in the later period of Polish People’s Republic and nowadays. The author observes that whilst the history of aviation has been a subject of interest to a vast number of researchers and academics, there is little research when it comes to its pedagogical aspects. Those are noteworthy, though, especially with regard to the period of Second Polish Republic as the aerial training in that period was aimed at the development of various competences and attitudes through educational and didactic methods within a relation between master and apprentice. Furthermore, that was also the period of extensive aviation propaganda and popularisation initiatives directed to the society as a whole. In conclusion, the author points out the prospects of further research in this field.
Andrei Zamoiski, The Success of Soviet National Policy: the Development of Higher Medical Education in Soviet Belarus in 1921–1944
Summary: The article analyzes the origins and development of higher medical education in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) in 1921–1944. The author tries to answer several questions, namely, what were the goals of Soviet policy in higher medical education in Soviet Belarus? What impact did this policy have on the training of medical and academic staff? What methods did the authorities use to shape the social and national composition of the students and faculty? In addition, the paper examines the little-known issue of recreating higher medical education by Belarusian collaborationists under the German occupation during World War II. The analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of Soviet policy in this regard, and remains critical in assessing its achievements such as the growth of medical personnel in the context of accelerated modernization and the Soviet national policy implemented on the outskirts of the multinational Soviet Union.
Janina Kamińska, Ewa Kula, Sources Regarding the History of the Commission of National Education in the Collection of the Russian State Archives of Ancient Documents in Moscow
Summary: The knowledge about the Commission of National Education is relatively widely spread, although education historians still come across new research possibilities. It is possible to broaden the knowledge even further by studying, among others, the manuscript collections of the Russian State Archives of Ancient Documents in Moscow (Российский Государственный Архив Древних Актов). Sources regarding the Commission of National Education are to be found in collection (фонд) No. 1603, titled Коммиссия эдукационного фундуша (Commission of the Education Fund). It contains thousands of manuscript sheets, catalogued in 16 inventory registers. According to the collection’s name, it is composed mainly of archival materials concerning financial matters of the Commission of National Education. It is worth mentioning that the financial resources for the Commission’s ventures were largely obtained from assets of the dissolved Society of Jesus. The Commission was free to handle the funds directly since 1776. The sources from the Moscow archive allow the analysis of at least four research areas: the post-Jesuit assets, the Jesuits and the post-Jesuit teaching staff in the Commission’s schools, situation of the teachers, especially former Jesuits, in the Commission’s schools, as well as the schools’ material base. Collection No. 1603 constitutes a treasury of knowledge not only for education historians. It is also a valuable source material for the researchers of the history of the Society of Jesus, law, architecture and customs.
Iwona H. Pugacewicz, Library of the Polish School at Batignolles as a National-Educational Pillar of Great Emigration
Summary: The text presents a document from 1865, preceded by the author’s introduction, on The Account of the Library of the Polish National School in Batignolles given to the splendid Administrative Board of the School. This report was written by the third conservator of the library, Alexander Burba, who was a doctor, participant in the November Uprising, and an émigré. From 1858 he worked at the Batignolles Polish School, first as its secretary and then as a librarian responsible for stocktaking, cataloging and drawing up property censuses and documentation of the collection which already numbered over a dozen thousand volumes. The document is all the more valuable since the entire archive of the Library of Batignolles, which from 1929 was located in the National Library of Poland, burned down during the Warsaw Uprising. The Burba’s report outlines all major librarian’s activities over the past five years, characterizing library resources, their organization and access rules.